Umm el-Jimal is a large village located in northern Jordan less than 10 km from the Syrian border. It is located in the Hauran, the northern desert region of the country. Despite this aridity, Umm el-Jimal is surprisingly well suited for agriculture, and its livelihood and economy is largely derived from agricultural and pastoral sustenance. The ruins of an ancient village lie in the midst of modern Umm el-Jimal. The ruins date from the Nabataean through the Abbasid periods. The earthquake of circa AD 749 did major damage, but the community survived well into the Abbasid period. In the early twentieth century the area was repopulated by the Druze and then the Bedouin Msa'eid tribe. Main article: Gadara  Gadara was a centre of Greek culture in the region during the Hellenistic and Roman periods.[2]  The oldest archaeological evidence at Umm Qais, extends back to the second half of the third century BC.[3] and the site appears to have been founded as a military colony by Alexander the Great's Macedonian Greeks. However, the site's name "Gadara" is not Greek in origin, but rather a Greek version of a local Semitic name meaning "fortifications" or "the fortified city" suggesting the military colony was founded on a pre-existing fortified site.[4]  Located on the boundary between Seleucid and Ptolemaic territory, the city was strategically important and was repeatedly the focus of military conquests throughout the succession of Syrian Wars between 274 - 188 BCE. The city's military importance during this period was noted by the Greek historian Polybius' describing it in 218 BCE as a fortress and "the strongest of all places in the region".  The Roman-Seleucid War (192 - 188BCE) weakened Seleucid control over the region devolving autonomy in Palestine and trans-Jordan to the Hasmonean, Iturean and Nabatean kingdoms whose rivalries continued to make Gadara a strategically important city and the focus of continued conflict.  In 98 BCE the Hasmonean King Alexander Jannaeus subjected the city to a 10 month siege, wresting control of the city and the trade routes to the ports of the Eastern Mediterranean that passed through it from the Nabateans.[5][6] The Nabatean response culminated in Nabatean King Obdas 1st' decisive victory over Jannaeus at the Battle of Gadara in 93 BCE.  In 63 BCE, Roman general Pompey conquered the region, Gadara was rebuilt and became a member of the semi-autonomous Roman Decapolis.[7][8] 33 years later Augustus attached it to the Jewish kingdom of his ally, Herod. After King Herod's death in 4 BCE, Gadara became part of the Roman province of Syria.[9]  To supply larger populations Gadara, and the neighbouring Decapolis cities of Adraa (Dera'a, Syria) and Abila (Qweilbeh, Jordan) undertook construction of a water supply system of 170 km of aqueduct tunnels connecting the cities to springs throughout southern Syria and an artificially constructed lake at Dille. Constructed between 90 - 210 CE the network of rock cut tunnels included 2,900 access shafts, and a single 106km section represents one of the most significant hydro-engineering accomplishments of the ancient world. During the Severan period (193 – 235CE) the city underwent a rapid expansion westwards and many of the large civic monuments still visible on the site today date to this period and attest to an increase in importance and prosperity. After the Christianisation of the Eastern Roman Empire, Gadara retained its important regional status and became for many years the seat of a Christian bishop.[10] The Ajlun Governorate has a population of over 176,080 widespread in 27 villages and towns over an area of about 420 km². The population is mainly composed of the following Muslim tribes: Al-Gharaibeh, AlQudah, Al-Share, Al-Zghoul, Al-Momani, Al-Smadi, Al-Shwayyat, Al-Freihat, Al-Khatatbah, Alnawateer, Al-Karraz, and others. Muqattash, Haddad, Iwais, Eisouh and Rabadi are the main Christian tribes in Ajloun. Although Christians are a minority in the overall governorate, they form about more than half of the population in Ajloun city; most Christians reside in Ajloun city along with Muslims of the Al-Smadi tribe. Other tribes are distributed in the other districts of the governorate. Ajloun Governorate has four seats in the national parliament, one of which is dedicated for the Christian minority. Jerash ( Ǧaraš; Ancient Greek: Γέρασα Gérasa) is a city in northern Jordan. The city is the administrative center of the Jerash Governorate, and has a population of 50,745 as of 2015. It is located 48 kilometres (30 mi) north of the capital city Amman.  The earliest evidence of settlement in Jerash is in a Neolithic site known as Tal Abu Sowan, where rare human remains dating to around 7500 BC were uncovered.[2] Jerash flourished during the Greco and Roman periods until the mid-eighth century CE, when the 749 Galilee earthquake destroyed large parts of it, while subsequent earthquakes contributed to additional destruction. However, in the year 1120, Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus ordered a garrison of forty men to build up a fort in an unknown site of the ruins of the ancient city, likely the highest spot of the city walls in the north-eastern hills. It was captured in 1121 by Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, and utterly destroyed.[3][4] Then, the Crusaders immediately abandoned Jerash and withdrew to Sakib (Seecip); the eastern border of the settlement.[5][6]  Jerash was then deserted until it reappeared by the beginning of the Ottoman rule in the early 16th century. In the census of 1596, it had a population of 12 Muslim households.[7] However, archaeologists found a small Mamluk hamlet in the Northwest Quarter[8] which indicates that Jerash was resettled before the Ottoman era. The excavations conducted since 2011 have shed light on the Middle Islamic period as recent discoveries have uncovered a large concentration of Middle Islamic/Mamluk structures and pottery.[9] The ancient city has been gradually revealed through a series of excavations which commenced in 1925, and continue to this day.[10]  Jerash today is home to one of the best preserved Greco-Roman cities, which earned it the nickname of "Pompeii of the East".[citation needed] Approximately 330,000 visitors arrived in Jerash in 2018, making it one of the most visited sites in Jordan.[11] The city hosts the Jerash Festival, one of the leading cultural events in the Middle East that attracts tens of thousands of visitors every year.[12] The Umayyad desert castles, of which the desert castles of Jordan represent a prominent part, are fortified palaces or castles in what was the then Umayyad province of Bilad al-Sham. Most Umayyad "desert castles" are scattered over the semi-arid regions of north-eastern Jordan, with several more in Syria, Israel and the West Bank (Palestine). Amman, Arabic ʿAmmān, biblical Hebrew Rabbath Ammon, ancient Greek Philadelphia, capital and largest city of Jordan. It is the residence of the king and the seat of government. The city is built on rolling hills at the eastern boundary of the ʿAjlūn Mountains, on the small, partly perennial Wadi ʿAmmān and its tributaries. Modern Madaba, 30 km southwest of Amman, continues an urban tradition that can be traced back at least 4,500 years. The ancient settlement, now mostly buried beneath the modern town, lies on a natural rise created by branches of the Wadi Madaba. On and around the tell are the remains of the classical town, represented most notably by the churches and mosaic pavements that have brought Madaba so much fame. The earliest reference to Madaba occurs in the Bible (Numbers 21:30) as part of a lament describing the conquest of a series of Moabite cities including Madaba by the Amorite King Sihon of Heshbon. Al-Karak lies 140 kilometres (87 mi) to the south of Amman on the ancient King's Highway. It is situated on a hilltop about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level and is surrounded on three sides by a valley. Al-Karak has a view of the Dead Sea. A city of about 32,216 people (2005[1]) has been built up around the castle and it has buildings from the 19th-century Ottoman period. The town is built on a triangular plateau, with the castle at its narrow southern tip Petra ( romanized: Al-Batrāʾ; Ancient Greek: Πέτρα, "Rock", Nabataean: 𐢛𐢚𐢓𐢈‎), originally known to its inhabitants as Raqmu or Raqēmō[3][4] is a historic and archaeological city in southern Jordan. It is adjacent to the mountain of Jabal Al-Madbah, in a basin surrounded by mountains forming the eastern flank of the Arabah valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba.[5] The area around Petra has been inhabited from as early as 7000 BC,[6] and the Nabataeans might have settled in what would become the capital city of their kingdom as early as the 4th century BC.[7] Archaeological work has only discovered evidence of Nabataean presence dating back to the second century BC,[8] by which time Petra had become their capital.[6] The Nabataeans were nomadic Arabs who invested in Petra's proximity to the incense trade routes by establishing it as a major regional trading hub.[6][9]  The trading business gained the Nabataeans considerable revenue and Petra became the focus of their wealth. The Nabataeans were accustomed to living in the barren deserts, unlike their enemies, and were able to repel attacks by taking advantage of the area's mountainous terrain. They were particularly skillful in harvesting rainwater, agriculture and stone carving. Petra flourished in the 1st century AD, when its famous Al-Khazneh structure – believed to be the mausoleum of Nabataean king Aretas IV – was constructed, and its population peaked at an estimated 20,000 inhabitants.[10]  Although the Nabataean kingdom became a client state of the Roman Empire in the first century BC, it was only in 106 AD that it lost its independence. Petra fell to the Romans, who annexed Nabataea and renamed it as Arabia Petraea.[11] Petra's importance declined as sea trade routes emerged, and after an earthquake in 363 destroyed many structures. In the Byzantine era several Christian churches were built, but the city continued to decline, and by the early Islamic era it was abandoned except for a handful of nomads. It remained unknown until it was rediscovered in 1812 by Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.[12]  Access to the city is through a 1.2-kilometre-long (3⁄4 mi) gorge called the Siq, which leads directly to the Khazneh. Famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system, Petra is also called the "Rose Red City" because of the colour of the stone from which it is carved.[13] It has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985. UNESCO has described Petra as "one of the most precious cultural properties of man's cultural heritage".[14] In 2007, Al-Khazneh was voted one of the New 7 Wonders of the World.[15] Petra is a symbol of Jordan, as well as Jordan's most-visited tourist attraction. Tourist numbers peaked at 1.1 million tourists in 2019, marking the first time that the figure rose above the 1 million mark.[16] Tourism in the city was crippled by the COVID-19 pandemic, but soon after started to pick up again, reaching 260,000 visitors in 2021.[17] Archeological evidence shows that Wadi Rum Desert  has been inhabited since prehistoric times. A recently excavated site to the south indicates settlement at least as early as 4500 BC. In the 8th and 6th centuries BC, the area was known as Wadi Iram.  With the fresh-water springs making it an ideal stopover for caravans traveling between Arabia and the Levant. Furthermore, inscriptions show that the Bedouin tribes of Ad, Thamud, Lihyan and Main all gathered here.  The Nabateans certainly made their mark here in Wadi Rum as well. With the 1st century BC remodeling of the temple at the foot of Jabal Rum (just west of Rum Village) and a more recently excavated site 8.5km to the east of the village. Consequently this site is believed to have been occupied prior to Petra. Aqaba (English: /ˈækəbə/,[2] also US: /ˈɑːk-/;[3]  romanized: al-ʿAqaba, al-ʿAgaba, pronounced [æl ˈʕæqaba, alˈʕagaba]) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.[4] Situated in southernmost Jordan, Aqaba is the administrative centre of the Aqaba Governorate.[5] The city had a population of 148,398 in 2015 and a land area of 375 square kilometres (144.8 sq mi).[6] Today, Aqaba plays a major role in the development of the Jordanian economy, through the vibrant trade and tourism sectors. The Port of Aqaba also serves other countries in the region.[7]  Aqaba's strategic location at the northeastern tip of the Red Sea between the continents of Asia and Africa, has made its port important over the course of thousands of years.[7]  The ancient city was called Elath, adopted in Latin as Aela and in Arabic as Ayla. Its strategic location and proximity to copper mines made it a regional hub for copper production and trade in the Chalcolithic period.[8] Aela became a bishopric under Byzantine rule and later became a Latin Catholic titular see after Islamic conquest around AD 650, when it became known as Ayla; the name Aqaba is late medieval.[9] The Great Arab Revolt's Battle of Aqaba, depicted in the film Lawrence of Arabia,[10] resulted in victory for Arab forces over the Ottoman defenders.[11]  Aqaba's location next to Wadi Rum and Petra has placed it in Jordan's golden triangle of tourism, which strengthened the city's location on the world map and made it one of the major tourist attractions in Jordan.[12] The city is administered by the Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority, which has turned Aqaba into a low-tax, duty-free city, attracting several mega projects like Ayla Oasis, Saraya Aqaba, Marsa Zayed and expansion of the Port of Aqaba.[13] They are expected to turn the city into a major tourism hub in the region.[14] However, industrial and commercial activities remain important, due to the strategic location of the city as the country's only seaport.[15] The city sits right across the border from Eilat, likewise Israel's only port on the Red Sea. After the 1994 Israel Jordan Peace Treaty there were plans and hopes of establishing a trans-border tourism and economic area, but few of those plans have come to fruition The Dead Sea in Jordan  We have all heard of this renowned salt lake, its natural beauty, and healing qualities. The Dead Sea is a fabulous holiday destination and Jordan is the perfect setting for those who wish to experience the qualities of the lake in peace and quiet. At 423 meters below sea level, the Dead Sea is officially the lowest place on earth making it an even more fascinating destination to visit.  Also known as the Salt Sea, the Dead Sea is an ideal location for rest and relaxation with biking and hiking aplenty. A holiday to the Dead Sea provides an idyllic alternative to the bustling cities, with plenty of things to do for those who seek a little adventure.